Thi công hệ thống điện tòa nhà cao tầng

Thiết kế, thi công, lắp đặt hệ thống chiếu sáng nhà xưởng
October 10, 2019
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April 10, 2020
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Thi công hệ thống điện tòa nhà cao tầng

Một hệ thống điện lớn, cung cấp điện lực cho một vùng miền, hoặc một quốc gia, cũng được gọi là lưới điện và có thể chia nhỏ hơn thành 3 mảng lớn gồm: Các máy phát (sản xuất điện), hệ thống truyền tải (đưa điện đến nơi tiêu thụ) và hệ thống phân phối (cấp điện cho các khu công nghiệp, thương mại và căn hộ). Những hệ thống điện nhỏ hơn cũng có thể xuất hiện nội bộ trong các khu công nghiệp, bệnh viện, gia đình, máy bay, xe hơi…

Thi công hệ thống điện

Phần lớn các hệ thống điện lớn trên thế giới ngày nay sử dụng hệ thống điện xoay chiều ba pha, tuy nhiên khi cần truyền tải trên một khoảng cách rất lớn (trên 500km), nghiên cứu cho thấy giải pháp tốt hơn là sử dụng công nghệ truyền tải điện một chiều.

1. Chọn phương án thi công hệ thống điện tòa nhà cao tầng

Căn cứ vào mặt bằng kiến trúc công trình ta có thể đưa ra nhiều phương án cung cấp điện khác nhau. Nhà thầu cơ điện phải đảm bảo những yêu cầu dưới đây thì mới được coi phương án thi công điện hợp lý:

– Đảm bảo chất lượng điện, tức là đảm bảo tần số và điện áp nằm trong phạm vi cho phép.

– Đảm bảo độ tin cậy, tính liên tục cung cấp điện phù hợp với yêu cầu của phụ tải.

– Thuận tiện trong vận hành lắp ráp và sửa chữa

– Có chỉ tiêu kinh tế kỹ thuật hợp lý

Thi công hệ thống điện cho cao tầng bao gồm những vấn đề chính sau:

– Phụ tải phong phú, đa dạng (điện áp, công suất, pha…)

– Phụ tải tập trung trong không gian hẹp, mật độ phụ tải tương đối cao.

– Có các hệ thống cấp nguồn dự phòng (ác quy, máy phát…)

– Không gian lắp đặt bị hạn chế và phải thỏa mãn các yêu cầu kỹ thuật trong kiến trúc xây dựng.

– Yêu cầu cao về chế độ làm việc và an toàn cho người sử dụng.

Trên đây là những vấn đề hết sức quan trọng bởi vì xác định đúng đắn và hợp lý những vấn đề đó sẽ ảnh hưởng trực tiếp đến vận hành, khai thác và phát huy hiệu quả của hệ thống cung cấp điện. Vì vậy, để xác định được phương án cung cấp điện hợp lý nhất ta phải khảo sát toàn bộ mặt bằng thực của khu nhà cao tầng, các dữ liệu liên quan đến công việc thi công sau này. Phải đưa ra nhiều phương án cung cấp thi công hệ thống điện để so sánh và chọn phương án tối ưu.

2. Lên phương án thiết kế điện

Sau khi chọn được phương án thi công hệ thống điện tòa nhà cao tầng, nhà thầu sẽ lên phương án thiết kế cung cấp điện cho 1 nguyên đơn của tòa nhà, thi công hệ thống chiếu sáng cho tòa nhà, tính toán nối đất, chống sét cho tòa nhà, thiết kế hệ thống báo cháy.

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